Tag Archives: America

Blind Politics

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Trump’s “Foreign” Policy is a cartoon that seeks to map out some of the ideas that Donald Trump has had about other nations. In the cartoon, Trump is explaining his foreign policy, which includes labels like “RAPISTS” on Mexico, “OUR PAL PUTIN” on Russia, and “DROP BOMB HERE?” in the middle east. All of these labels are references to things that Trump has said about these countries before, and all of them point toward the fact that Trump thinks about the rest of the world in an ethnocentric way, influencing all of his decisions on policy. One policy in particular that Trump is especially vocal about is his policy to keep low-skill manufacturing jobs in the U.S. by putting tariffs on imported goods (Rich). Although Donald Trump seeks to boost the success of American companies by cutting America off from the rest of the world, his policies may only harm American industries like what happened during the Great Depression.

Donald Trump’s motives in his economic policies are benign on a surface level. According to him, one of the biggest problems with our country is that industries are moving production plants out of America since labor is cheaper in other countries, and then these companies are distributing their goods in the U.S. without having to pay taxes for imports. In this way America is losing both low-skill manufacturing jobs and tax revenue from tariffs on foreign-made goods. His policy is to prevent or discourage companies from doing this by putting taxes on their imports into the U.S.

Trump has repeatedly vowed to impose high tariffs – or the threat of high tariffs – to bully American companies into keeping jobs in the United States. His favorite example is Ford Motor Co., which plans to build a massive plant in Mexico. Trump has said that before he takes office he will persuade Ford to change course by threatening to charge the company a 35 percent tax on cars imported back into the United States (Robert).

This policy is a bit more feasible than many of his other policies, but his no-compromise attitude and business background may cause him to force companies to decide between selling to America or to the rest of the world.

So what’s been interesting about Trump is he has really appealed to this older sense of nationalism as opposed to modern American conservatism. He criticizes outsourcing of jobs to other countries, things like that. So that’s his economic point of view. Then you throw in things on immigration – the Buckleyan conservatives are open to skills-based immigration. Let’s bring the best and brightest from around the world to America. The  view is that those individuals are a threat to the people who live here now, and we should only bring them in very, very limited numbers. (Robert)

The kind of America that Trump believes in is a kind of America that is self-sustaining, isolated, and free of foreign influence without benefit. Putting massive tariffs on imported goods discourages trade and encourages consumers to buy domestic goods, but trying to force this has never worked.

Trump is interested in running the country like a business. He seeks to be the CEO instead of the diplomatic leader. This comes into play when he talks about NATO and relations with Japan. “If we’re attacked, Japan doesn’t have to do anything. They can sit home and watch Sony television… They have to pay… It’s got to be a two-way street” (Henderson). Trump is talking about the Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security signed in 1960. This treaty requires both nations to defend each other in case of an attack, but article 9 of the treaty stops Japan from coming to the aid of the U.S. in the event of an attack. This treaty was made since “alliance with Japan is crucial for America’s Asia-Pacific strategy and security,” (Henderson) but Trump is instead looking at this alliance as a business opportunity. This goes back to the ethnocentric ideas that Trump has. It is a privilege to use the best military in the world, so other people have to pay for it, simple as that. The only problem is; it is not as simple as that. “Mr. Trump regards treaties with other countries as contracts that needed to be reviewed to see whether they benefited Americans” (Rich). Concerns that are rising about Trump’s relations with other countries are very similar to the concerns brought about by the Smoot-Hawley Tariff. This tariff, passed by Herbert Hoover during the Great Depression, started global trade wars that became detrimental to both American and world economies. If Trump seriously gives up an alliance with the Japanese for lack of profit, he will inevitably set off a chain reaction of instability in Asia, that could spread even further. An alliance with Japan is necessary not only for peace between nations, but also for trade. Donald Trump is trying to look out for his own country, but he is doing it through an ethnocentric lens. Doing this has led to mistakes before, such as when Franklin Delano Roosevelt passed a 42 percent tariff on Japanese cotton in 1936 in hopes of stimulating the American textile economy. This action was later referred to as the “cotton blunder” because of the backfire it caused; Japan responded to this tariff with a counter-tariff and a threat to trade with other nations instead of the U.S.

There are times when being a businessman is useful, but being able to balance this skill with good diplomacy is more important for the President of the United States. Because Donald Trump sees things through an ethnocentric viewpoint, he fails to recognize that benefitting other nations through alliances and trade agreements can be good.

Bibliography

Henderson, Barney. “Donald Trump Savages Japan, Saying All They Will Do Is ‘watch Sony TVs’ If US Is Attacked and Threatening to ‘walk’ Away from Treaty.” The Telegraph [UK] 5 Aug. 2016: 1+. Print.

Johnson, Sean Sullivan;Jenna. “Trump ramps up rhetoric on trade.” The Washington Post. (July 1, 2016 Friday ): 1348 words. LexisNexis Academic. Web. Date Accessed: 2016/11/15.

Rich, Motoko. “Abe to Meet Trump to Press Japan’s Case on Security and Trade.” The New York Times 11 Nov. 2016: 1+. Print.

Robert, Siegel. “Nationalism V. Conservatism: What Trump’s Rise Means For The GOP.” All Things Considered (NPR) (2016): Newspaper Source. Web. 24 Oct. 2016.

“Trump’s protectionist rhetoric worries Chinese.” Global Times (China). (March 17, 2016 Thursday): 817 words. LexisNexis Academic. Web. Date Accessed: 2016/10/24.

Too Far Apart

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John Knott’s illustration depicts a sick, middle-income American staring up at a building with the words “high-class income” inscribed on its side.

Too Far Apart

John Francis Knott- April 29, 1936

The political cartoon Too Far Apart offers a comedic yet eye-opening perspective on the imbalanced distribution of healthcare during the Great Depression. The Great Depression devastated the middle class, further excluded the lower class, and ruined the lives of several members of the upper class. Many Americans lost their jobs, and droughts across the country caused many farmers to lose their major source of income. This drastic spike in the poverty rate led to a significant decrease in the quality of healthcare received by the public. Furthermore, many impoverished citizens were unable to consistently eat and this made them more susceptible to the various illnesses that were prevalent during the 1930s. Many children suffered from rickets (a disorder that stems from a lack of Vitamin D, phosphate, or calcium) and since there were many areas that didn’t have running water, a large number of people became ill from the constant spread of germs. Physicians often found themselves unable to handle the sudden influx of unemployed and underprivileged patients, and this eventually created a gap in the quality of healthcare Americans received.

The article that complements this cartoon, titled ”The Medical Problem”, aims to provide insight on the medical issue from the perspective of the many physicians that were working during the Great Depression. The article claims that much like the majority of citizens, many doctors were negatively affected during the Great Depression. Countless physicians were being overworked and did not receive any compensation for their efforts. Additionally, many unemployed Americans that were unable to afford medical care were under the assumption that doctors failed to understand their troubles and doctors eventually began to feel the same way about the American populace. The article also pessimistically analyzes several proposed solutions to the medical problem that was prevalent during the Great Depression. The author repeatedly asserts that doctors and American citizens were “unable to agree” on a way to ensure that Americans received quality healthcare and that doctors were equitably salaried. However, agreement on a solution was not a simple task. The author highlights the complexity of the medical crisis by saying that it was a “many-sided problem” and that “even the soundest medical thinking has difficult cross-currents”.

Too Far Apart, a political cartoon drawn by John F. Knott, accurately illustrates the rift that was created between upper class healthcare and middle class healthcare. According to “Poverty in America: An Encyclopedia”, “public-relief programs enjoyed widespread support” during the Great Depression. For example, many middle-income Americans (income of $150 to $424) heavily relied on the Work Projects Administration (WPA) to supply them with medical care. The WPA did what they could, but they often lacked the proper facilities to treat their “3.5 million patients”. However, families that were considered to be financially comfortable (income of $425 and up) were, on average, able to pay for medical care 45.9 percent of the time. Middle-income families were only able to pay for medical care 18.8 percent of the time. This meant that many of these families (31.4 percent) were forced to rely on the free programs that were being offered through Franklin D. Roosevelt’s New Deal. Knott’s cartoon exemplifies this fact by showing an ill and hopeless man lying in a bed with the words “medium income sickness” inscribed on the blanket. The man is looking up towards a rather large building with the words “first class medical care” etched on its side. The fact that the man in the medium income bed is unlikely to ever be able to reach the first class medical building that is not only physically separated from him but also metaphorically separated implies that there was indeed an issue that needed to be resolved and that many unlucky, downtrodden, and sick Americans were suffering due to the lack of a solution.

The humor in this cartoon is particularly subtle. Neither the character nor the environments in this cartoon are drawn in an exaggerated form. Knott undoubtedly choose this realistic style to illustrate the seriousness of the medical problem that affected millions of Americans during the Great Depression. Knott’s goal for this cartoon was not to make people laugh. He instead aimed to inspire thought amongst his viewers. However, this cartoon does contain some humor. Many viewers of this cartoon could probably relate to the man in the bed since millions of Americans were either unemployed or unable to pay for topnotch medical care. Knott takes advantage of the human capacity to empathize with another individual or situation in an effort to further emphasize to his message through humor.

John Knott’s cartoon Too Far Apart accurately captures the despondent attitude many Americans had towards the medical industry during the Great Depression. Many families could not afford decent medical care and they were forced to rely on public-relief programs whenever they became ill. Various solutions were drawn up but because of the disparity between the ideals of doctors and patients, there was never any agreement. These numerous disagreements created a gap between the health care received by the upper class and middle class. As this gap became increasingly apparent, journalists and artists like John Knott yearned to expose this problem and one impactful result of this desire was the political cartoon Too Far Apart.

Works Cited

“Great Depression.” Poverty in AmericaAn Encyclopedia. Russell M. Lawson and Benjamin A. Lawson. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2008. 61-65. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 2 Dec. 2014.

“The Human Impact of the Great Depression.” The Human Impact of the Great Depression. N.p., n.d. Web. 01 Dec. 2014. <http://bigmateo0.tripod.com/id2.html>.

“Health Conservation and WPA – Social Welfare History Project.” Social Welfare History Project. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Nov. 2014. <http://www.socialwelfarehistory.com/eras/health-conservation-wpa/>.

Perrot, George St. J. “Medical Care during the Depression: A Preliminary Report upon a Survey of Wage-Earning Families in Seven Large Cities.” NCBI. N.p., Dec. 2005. Web. 28 Nov. 2014. <http%3A%2F%2Fwww.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov%2Fpmc%2Farticles%2FPMC2690273%2F>.

 

 

Tea for Two

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Uncle Sam (America) and Stalin (Russia) are viewed having tea as if they are old friends having a casual chat.

John Francis Knott – November 20, 1933

The political cartoon as viewed above is a direct reference to the sudden change in decision by Russia to eagerly collaborate in diplomatic relations with America. In order to understand the humor within the image, one must be aware of the historical evidence of the October Revolution (also commonly known as Red October) of 1917.

Vladimir Lennon, Leon Trotsky, and other Bolshevik Party members let the October Revolution in hopes of creating what is now known as the basis of Soviet Russia (Trotsky).  Soon after the removal of Russia’s government and installation of the new, they refused to honor their debts to the United States as well as seize American property located in Russia (US Department of State).  For the subsequent 17 years, America, as well as other foreign countries refused to interact with or recognize Russia as a country until years later. America also became the last Western country to identify Russia as a country. Meanwhile, Russia continued what it had been doing before the new Soviet government took over which was continue trade relations and act as if nothing ever happened, after all, what happened in Russia was not a problem the United States had to handle.  In the early-mid 20th century, the United States was well-known to steer clear of intervening in the issues of other countries unless provoked by attack. Otherwise, The U.S. only focused on its own internal problems.

The political cartoon is accompanied with the article titled, “Normal Relations Resumed” which gives a semi-bias opinion of the situation.  While the information is presented in a factual and objective manner, the author uses some words that indicate favoritism in one direction. For example, Knott adds in a few adjectives such as “great” before “Nation” when describing the importance of Russia being on friendly terms with America.  Also, at points, the author bears his excitement through his choice of words: “renewed once again the friendly relations that had existed for so long between the United States and Russia” (Knott).

Throughout the article, there is an indication of opinion on how the author praises Roosevelt’s action for “recognizing Russia” (Knott). One can easily acknowledge the author’s support for Roosevelt who lists all the pros of becoming in good terms with Russia, but the risks are not mentioned.  The picture mirrors this idea through Uncle Sam and Joseph Stalin.

The humor found in the cartoon itself is a satirical reference to the situation on how both countries see each other once they decided to have diplomatic relations.  The two drinking tea is a symbolism for friendship as its common to invite someone over for a drink, lunch, dinner, etc., when the two are old friends or wanting to get to know one another.  The people displayed on the picture are not so much a reference to the historical figures, but how the people of both countries reacted in such a friendly way towards each other in the aftermath.

It is important to note their physical appearances and gestures such as the certainty in their direct eye contact with one another.  Uncle Sam is leaning forward smiling with his tea cup raised almost as if he is about to give a toast.  Stalin, however, is much more stiff and it is uncertain whether he is smiling. This reflects the author’s perspective where he places much emphasis on how Americans see the new relationship (optimistic), but he fails to mention how Russia feels about America. Thus in the art he is uncertain how to portray Stalin (again, representation of Russia) and thus gives him a stiff pose that can be perceived in different ways.

Overall the scene depicts the two countries in the form of men who are drawn as carefree characters considerate and compassionate to one another. It makes fun of the fact that the countries can seem to be oblivious of the past and willing to let bygones be bygones.

Works Cited:

BUDNITSKII, OLEG. “October Manifesto.” Encyclopedia of Russian History. Ed. James R. Millar. Vol. 3. New York: Macmillan Reference USA, 2004. 1087-1088. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 30 Nov. 2014.

Knott, John Francis. “Normal Relations Resumed.” Dallas Morning News[Dallas] 20 Nov. 1933: 2. Infoweb.newsbank. Web. 21 Oct. 2014.

RABINOWITCH, ALEXANDER. “October Revolution.” Encyclopedia of Russian History. Ed. James R. Millar. Vol. 3. New York: Macmillan Reference USA, 2004. 1088-1096. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 30 Nov. 2014.

RABINOWITCH, ALEXANDER. “October Revolution.” Encyclopedia of Russian History. Ed. James R. Millar. Vol. 3. New York: Macmillan Reference USA, 2004. 1088-1096. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 30 Nov. 2014.

“Trotsky, Leon.” International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. Ed. David L. Sills. Vol. 16. New York: Macmillan, 1968. 155-158. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 30 Nov. 2014.

United States. Government. Historian. Recognition of the Soviet Union, 1933 – 1921–1936 – Milestones – Office of the Historian. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Nov. 2014.