The Campaign is On!

Cartoonist John Knott provides his audience with a glimpse of various points of views on New Deal policies implemented by the Roosevelt Administration prior to the 1936 presidential election.
Cartoonist John Knott provides his audience with a glimpse of various points of views on New Deal policies implemented by the Roosevelt Administration prior to the 1936 presidential election.

The Campaign is On! is a political cartoon by John Francis Knott displaying the partisan views of New Deal policies as a solution to the Great Depression preceding the 1936 presidential election. It shows Franklin D. Roosevelt, the incumbent president and democratic nominee, holding up a sign with the words “MORE FOOD AND BETTER HOMES”, both promises of his New Deal policies. It also shows two men walking directly beside him, one labeled as a farmer and the other as a city worker. The cartoon then depicts a frustrated-looking elephant, symbolizing the Republican party, wearing a coat with the words “ANTI-NEW DEAL” and holding a sign that asks “WHO’S GOING TO PAY FOR THEM?” (Knott 2) This cartoon suggests that Franklin Roosevelt, farmers, city workers and the Democratic party wish to continue on with the New Deal as the solution for the depression, while it displays the Republican party’s skepticism and disapproval of such a measure.

The editorial “The Roosevelt address”, which the cartoon was paired with, described Roosevelt’s speech at the National Democratic Dinner in 1936. It explained that this particular speech was utilized by Roosevelt to launch his campaign for his second term in office. The writer also asserted how the two main points of his speech left him vulnerable to economic criticism. The first of Roosevelt’s claims being that the national income had increased dramatically during his presidency from 1932 to 1936, which the writer explained did not take into account the devaluation the dollar underwent during his first term in office. Roosevelt’s second claim expressed his disagreement with the Republican ideology that simply lowering manufacturing costs would lead to economic recovery. He believed it instead would result in either the displacement of workers by machinery or a decrease in wages while hours on the clock increased for workers. The writer of the editorial then followed up with citing Henry Ford’s manufacturing model which gave worker’s fair pay scales while still lowering manufacturing and sell cost (“The Roosevelt Address” 2).

In the late 1920s and the 1930s the worst economic depression the nation had ever endured took place. This infamous period is known as the Great Depression. Prior to total economic collapse, the country had already been trending towards a recession, however, a notable start to the depression took place on October 29, 1929 when the stock market crashed (McElvaine 151). This event alone was not the sole cause of the Great Depression, but it did spark a general reluctance of the population to invest in stocks. From 1929 to 1933, the overall “consumption levels declined by 18 percent and investment levels declined by 98 percent.” (Lawson 61) As a result of this, one-quarter of the available labor force was unemployed. The streets began to fill with homeless and breadlines began to grow. It became clearer and clearer that government intervention was required. Herbert Hoover, Roosevelt’s predecessor and a Republican, implemented some measures to combat the economic downturn, although not much was done under his administration. An honest effort by the government to relieve the economic pains of the Great Depression was not put into motion until Franklin Roosevelt’s presidency.

During his first term in the White House, Roosevelt implemented a series of programs and agencies, which became known as the New Deal, to combat the damage being done by the Great Depression. The Federal Emergency Relief Administration, the Civil Works Administration, the National Recovery Administration and the Agricultural Adjustment Administration were the first of many programs created under the banner of the New Deal to help control “prices, wages, trading practices, and production.” (Savage 845) The second major wave of New Deal legislation came in the form of the Social Security Act, the Wagner Act, and the Works Progress Administration. These measures aimed to increase consumption and decrease unemployment and also added “new social welfare benefits, such as retirement pensions and unemployment insurance.” (Savage 846) When the 1936 presidential election and the illustration of Knott’s cartoon came about, the country needed to decide whether to continue with such policies and reelect Roosevelt or to abandon the New Deal and bring in a Republican presidential elect.

Before the Great Depression was in full swing, the nation’s agricultural sector began to suffer in the 1920s. World War I had brought a large amount of agricultural growth to the United States. However, following the conclusion of the war, there began to be an overproduction of crops that flooded the market and impeded the farmers’ ability to make a profit (Lawson 62). Many of the country’s farms, particularly the ones at a larger scale, were being held afloat by New Deal policies such as the Agricultural Adjustment Administration. This measure aimed to limit the production of crops in order to raise prices to profitable levels. This straightforward plan by the Roosevelt Administration, as well as many incentives from the government, may have swayed many farmers of the time to align with the implementation of the New Deal. This is evident in a 1936 election report by the Los Angeles Times titled the “Vote of the Drought States” that shows major agricultural states of the Midwest displaying a majority of party votes for Roosevelt (“Vote of Drought States” 14).

Major cities in the United States, such as Los Angeles, Akron, and Detroit, experienced a rapid growth in population during the 1920s because of the increase in the number of industrial jobs, as well as the retail and service industries. The occurrence of the stock market crash of 1929 and the persistent economic decline that followed proved to be a challenge for the ill-equipped city governments to combat. This resulted in a decrease in the consumption of products which led to a surplus in the goods being produced. In reaction, industry began to cut production and commit massive layoffs of its workers. These now unemployed city workers could no longer afford to pay their mortgages and rents, this is lead to an increase in the presence of homelessness of these major industrial centers (Flanagan 311). This put these people in a position where government aid was a necessity and the Roosevelt administration up until the 1936 election had a demonstrated a willingness to do so. The New Deal policy, the Federal Relief Act, provided monetary aid to state funded unemployment compensation programs. Also the Civilian Conservation Corps provided work for thousands of jobless young men on federal oriented projects, such as reforestation, road building, and flood control (Kennedy 430). Through agencies, such as the National Recovery Administration (NRA), Roosevelt aimed to “secure the agreement of major industries to government-backed codes designed the to stop the downward slide of payrolls, prices, and production.” (Kennedy 431) Those specific measures might have proven to be ineffective because even after their implementation the economy still “remained sickly.” (Kennedy 432) However, these and many other policies displayed to city working voters a clear effort by the Roosevelt administration to provide assistance to a suffering demographic of the United States’ population. This is possibly what coerced many wage earning voters to side with Roosevelt during the 1936 election. This is displayed when an article that was published in the New York Times following the election stated that “the wage-earner votes might easily account for the landslide” Roosevelt victory (Huston E4).

The Republican party during the 1936 presidential election was firmly against the measures implemented by the Roosevelt Administration and as a result were “anti-New Deal”, as Knott’s cartoon suggests. During the Republican Convention of 1936 in Cleveland, Ohio, the party’s platform began with the sentence, “America is in peril” and “focused on the alleged threat of New Deal policies to American Constitutional government.” (“1936 Conventions” 117) Essentially the Republicans wished to place the majority of the burden of unemployment relief back into local and state governments. They also wanted to restrict the federal government from placing production regulations on agriculture and industry, which was done by the National Relief Administration and the Agricultural Adjustment Administration. Alfred M. Landon, the Republican candidate, and the Republican party as a whole believed the New Deal had slowed the recovery of the economy by placing unnecessary obstacles in the way of private enterprise and industry (Merz E3).

The Democratic party during the 1936 presidential election was prepared to back Roosevelt and his New Deal policies. The Democratic Party Convention of 1936 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania “was one of the most harmonious in party history.” (“1936 Conventions” 117) The party’s platform “supported the continuation of the extensive federal programs undertaken by the Roosevelt Administration” and expressed a necessary collaboration between federal and state governments to handle the issues brought about by the Great Depression (“1936 Conventions” 118). In an article published by the New York Times it is expressed that Roosevelt wished to divide the cost of relief between the national and state governments. Also Roosevelt expressed that the policies implemented by his administration did not slow down economic recovery, but instead brought “the return of confidence and the advance of business.” (Merz E3)

The Campaign is On! by John Francis Knott provides the viewer with a snapshot of various points of views on New Deal policies leading into the 1936 presidential election. Farmers at the time experienced a substantial loss in profit as a result of crop overproduction and the Great Depression. This group tended to side with Roosevelt and his New Deal policies for regulation and guaranteed profit. City workers began to struggle as a result of massive layoffs that took place in response to a rise in the surplus of goods. Wage-earners sided with the Roosevelt because of the measures taken in the form of industrial regulations and social projects implemented by his administration. Republicans at the time called for the abandonment of the New Deal, believing that it violated the United States’ Constitution and slowed down economic recovery. On the other hand, the Democrats and Roosevelt vouched for the continuation of the New Deal arguing that it had led to apparent improvements in the economy during his first term as president.

Works Cited

Flanagan, Richard. “Great Depression and Cities.” Encyclopedia of American Urban History. Ed. David Goldfield. Vol. 1. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Reference, 2007. 311-313. Print.


Huston, Luther A. “Labor and Farm Groups Big Factors in Voting: Credit for Outcome Shared by Small Cities and Large, Negroes and Whites, New Voters and Old.” New York Times, 8     Nov. 1936, p. E4.


Kennedy, David M. “Franklin D. Roosevelt.” Presidents: A Reference History. Ed. Henry F. Graff. 3rd ed. Detroit: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 2002. 427-443. Print.


Lawson, Russel M. and Benjamin A. Lawson. “Great Depression.” Poverty in America: An Encyclopedia. Westport, Ct: Greenwood Press, 2008. 61-65. Print.


McElvaine, Robert S. “Causes of the Great Depression.” Encyclopedia of the Great Depression. Ed. Robert S. McElvaine. Vol. 1. New York: Macmillan Reference USA, 2004. 151-156. Print.


Merz, Charles. “Issues the Campaign Has Brought to the Fore: With President Roosevelt Himself as the Chief Issue, These are Also Vital.” New York Times, 1 Nov. 1936, p. E3.


Savage, Sean J. “Roosevelt, Franklin D.” Encyclopedia of the Great Depression. Ed. Robert S. McElvaine. Vol. 1. New York: Macmillan Reference, 2004. 838-849. Print.


“Vote of Drought States.” Los Angeles Times, 9 Aug. 1936, p. 14.


“1936 Conventions.” National Party Conventions 1831-2008. Washington DC: CQ Press, 2010. 116-118. Print.  

Look at What You Made Me Do.

Cartoonist Gary Varvel provides his audience with an illustration of the apparent disagreement between the Republican and Democratic parties over the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.
Cartoonist Gary Varvel provides his audience with an illustration of the apparent disagreement between the Republican and Democratic parties over the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.

Look at What You Made Me Do is a political cartoon illustrated by Gary Varvel in the summer of 2013. This illustration displays a clear partisan divide between the Democrat and Republican party on the issue of ‘Obamacare’, a term used in place of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. The cartoon shows a donkey, symbolizing the Democratic party, crashing an ambulance truck labeled “OBAMACARE” into a street post labeled “EMPLOYER MANDATE DR.” It also presents an elephant, symbolic of the Republican party, dressed in construction-worker’s attire holding a STOP-sign by his side. The donkey exhibits blame of his crash on the elephant by exclaiming, “Look at what you made me do” towards him. Varvel’s cartoon shows a desire by the Democratic party to implement the healthcare policies under Obamacare, while the Republican party seems to be reluctant to help make it work.

After taking the Oval Office in early 2009, President Barack Hussein Obama pushed for the passage of a bill that would reform the health care system in the United States. The reason being, after decades under the “American employer-based health insurance model”, employers began to either reduce or totally eliminate their employee health care benefits. While simultaneously private health insurance became less and less affordable for many people. This resulted in tens of millions of Americans being uninsured and medical expenses becoming the most common cause of personal bankruptcy by 2007 (Alic 402). In early 2010 a bill titled, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, was passed by Congress and signed into law by president Obama with the intention of curtailing this issue. The purpose of this bill was to bring a reduction in the number of individuals who were without health insurance, an increase in the availability and quality of health care programs, and a reduction in the cost of health care to individuals and the government (Newton 1842). Both parties do realize that health care reform is necessary, however, both are in heavy opposition over this law.

One of the primary sources of controversy within the Affordable Care Act is its “Employer Mandate” provision, which is referenced in Varvel’s cartoon through the street post. This provision provides a set definition for big and small employers. Then based on the definitions these businesses will either receive assistance to help pay for health care or be obligated to reach certain requirements with regard to their employees’ health insurance. For instance, the act requires the government to start issuing tax credits to smaller employers with fifty or more employees to help pay for the cost of health care. Then the Act describes large businesses as having 200 or more employees and requires these employers to enroll their workers into health insurance plans that they offer (“The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act” 878). This provision is the center for much of the debate about the Affordable Care Act because both of the parties have different views on the extent the federal government can intervene with business and the economy.

The modern-day Democratic party is described as being the party that leans more towards a liberal ideology. This generally means that the Democrats approve of a strong national government that heavily implements social welfare and equality and government intervention to regulate the economy (Tarr 259). The Affordable Care Act allows the government to intervene on businesses when it comes to providing for their employees’ health care. The reason why the party would be in favor of such a measure is because it provides health insurance to a broader portion of the population, further fulfilling the liberal desire for equality. Also the Affordable Care Act became law when the Democrats controlled both houses of Congress and when President Obama, a Democrat, had control of the White House (“The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act” 877).

On the other hand, the contemporary Republican party holds a more conservative ideology relative to the Democrats. Which infers that most members of the party would be in favor of a national government that has little jurisdiction over regulating the economy and providing social services (Tarr 259). The Affordable Care Act goes against the Conservative-Republican ideology by allowing the government to impede on the affairs of businesses and, as a result, the economy. After it was passed back in 2010, twenty-seven Republican-controlled states joined in a lawsuit against it. They argued that requiring uninsured people to buy health insurance or face paying a fine was a violation of the Commerce Clause of the Constitution and also their states’ rights ideology (Gaines 264). Over the years that the Affordable Care Act has been implemented, the Republicans have repeatedly vocalized their disapproval of the law. In the article “GOP Consumed by Obamacare” there is reports of Republican officials serving in various positions from Majority Leader of the Senate, Mitch McConnell, to the Republican National Committee Chairman, Reince Priebus, expressing a priority to repeal and replace the Act in 2014 (Milbank A9).

The partisan disagreement over the implementation of policies and the role of national government seems to be a common occurrence throughout the United States’ history. A similar disagreement between the Democrats and Republicans is illustrated in a political cartoon from the 1930’s by John Knott entitled The Campaign is On! (Knott 2) The issue referred to in Knott’s cartoon is the New Deal polices implemented by the Roosevelt administration, a Democratic president. The Democrats and Republicans in those days seem to maintain similar ideologies to their parties in the early 2010s. The Democrats were in favor of the New Deal which promoted government induced economic regulation and social programs to bring about economic recovery. While the Republicans believed that economic recovery would come more quickly by getting rid of the government regulation on industry put into motion by the New Deal.

Look at What You Made Me Do is a political cartoon that provides the viewer with a glimpse of the partisan disagreement over the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. It refers to a specific provision of the law that puts certain requirements on employers depending on their particular size. The cartoon also illustrates the desire by the Democratic party to implement the Affordable Care Act because it abides by the liberal ideology that party seems to maintain. On the other side of country’s political party system, the Republicans wish to repeal or slow down the implementation of the Affordable Care Act because it directly contradicts their conservative views.

Works Cited

Alic, Margaret, “Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.” Consumer Health Care. Ed. Brigam Narins. Vol. 2. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale, 2014. 402-409. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 16 Nov. 2016.


Gaines, Kevin. “Obama, Barack Hussein 1961-.” Encyclopedia of Race and Racism. Ed. Patrick L. Mason. 2nd ed. Vol. 3. Detroit Macmillan Reference USA, 2013. 261-265. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 16 Nov. 2016.


Milbank, Dana. “GOP Consumed by Obamacare.” Spokesman Review [Spokane, WA], 9 Jan. 2014, p. A9.


Newton, David E. “Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA).” The Gale Encyclopedia of Alternative Medicine. Ed. Laurie J. Fundukian. 4th ed. Vol. 3. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale, 2014. 1842- 1844. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 28 Nov. 2016.


“The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.” Gale Encyclopedia of Everyday Law. Ed. Donna Batten. 3rd ed. Vol. 2: Health Care to Travel. Detroit: Gale, 2013. 877-880. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 16 Nov. 2016.


Tarr, Dave, and Bob Beneson. “Ideology.” Elections A to Z. 4th ed. Los Angeles: CQ Press, 2012. 259-264. CQ Press America Government A to Z Series. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 28 Nov. 2016.


Varvel, Gary. “Look at What You Made Me Do.” Cartoon. Creators Syndicate. 7 Jul. 2013. Web. 10 Nov. 2016.

Germany’s Christmas Tree

A very meager and sad looking Christmas tree sits behind a broken window. The ornaments are chain links, solders fighting depciting communism and fascicm, and presents with the words reparations, debt and unemployment written on the outside. A candle of "hope" sits at the top of the Christmas tree.
A very meager and sad looking Christmas tree sits behind a broken window. The ornaments are chain links, solders fighting depicting communism and fascism, and presents with the words reparations, debt and unemployment written on the outside. A candle labeled “hope” sits at the top of the Christmas tree.

Description: This political cartoon from the early 1930s, depicts a Christmas tree with ornaments of war, but with one small glimmer of hope – that of a candle topping the tree. It is referring to the hope that France and Germany will work out their differences regarding reparations in the post WWI landscape.

This cartoon is humorous because of it’s contrasts between the usually happy celebrations of Christmas time with the sad, meager tree and the angry, combative “ornaments that are hung on the lowest branches – perhaps implying the lowest hanging fruit and thus  the most likely to occur.


John F. Knott Cartoon Scrapbook, [ca. 1930-1942], 1952, Dolph Briscoe Center for American History, The University of Texas at Austin.

Reparations.” Europe Since 1914: Encyclopedia of the Age of War and Reconstruction. Ed. John Merriman and Jay Winter. Vol. 4. Detroit: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 2006. 2205-2209. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 2 Oct. 2014.